The Hugessen Monument: Uncovering & Restoration

At the beginning of our first week, we were told the there was a special project waiting for us out in Section R: The Hugessen Monument. After a few days of getting out conservation bearings, we headed over to check it out, shovels in hand, excited to begin what would turn into a four-week project with a lot of surprises!

The monument, a large, simple marble gravestone with a curved top, is dedicated to Richard Hugessen. The stone reads:

IN
MEMORY OF
RICHARD ASTLEY KNATCHBULL HUGESSEN
LATE CAPTAIN 57TH REGt
THIRD SON OF THE
RIGHT HONble SIR E. KNATCHBULL [BAR.]
OF KENT, ENGLAND
AND FANNY CATHERINE
HIS SECOND WIFE.
BORN SEPTEMBER 9th 1832.
DIED AT SAN FRANCISCO AUGUST 29th 1875.
______________
In the midst of life we are in death.

Portrait of Fanny Catherine (unknown painter)

According to the burial records, both Capt. Hugessen and his mother Fanny are buried within the plot, but the records state that Fanny’s burial was ‘undocumented’, and there is no gravestone on the site to mark her burial there. Find A Grave indicates that she is buried with her late husband in Goodnestone, Swale Borough Kent, England The only mention of her, sans married or maiden names, is as the second wife and mother of Richard, named above. Woodland’s burial record books from 1882, the year of Fanny’s death, do not indicate that anyone by that name is buried at the cemetery, however our digital records show 2 burials within the plot. What this could indicate, we aren’t 100% sure, but is either an error in our records or perhaps Fanny was buried here for a time before being returned to England or visa versa.

Woodland boasts quite a few famous people and the Hugessen-Knatchbulls are no exception. Fanny Catherine was the niece of Jane Austen! Fanny’s father, Edward Austen (later Knight) was one of Jane Austen’s brothers and Fanny was his oldest child. Jane wrote how fond she was of her young niece in several letters, and she was immortalized in paintings and sketching befitting her title of ‘Lady or Dame’ after marriage to Sir. Edward Knatchbull. A newspaper article from the London Gazette in England dating to 1849 states that ‘Dame Fanny-Catherine Knatchbull…may take and henceforth use the surname of Hugessen in addition to and after that of Knatchbull, and bear the arms of Hugessen quarterly with those of their own family.’ This indicates that a title had been granted to the family, and the Hugessen name appears on the gravestone as the final portion of her son Richard’s name.

Richard Astley died of typhoid fever in San Francisco California on August 29th, 1875. His family paid to have his body returned to London so it could be buried in the family plot. The Woodland burial records indicate he was interred on September 9th, 1875 at St. Paul’s Cathedral churchyard, and would have been transferred to Woodland in/after 1879 when the cemetery opened. What Richard’s connection to London is, we are still trying to figure out, but we do know that he served in the British 57th Regiment of Foot as an ensign in 1851, was made lieutenant in 1854, and Captain by 1855. The regiment became part of the Duke of Cambridge’s Own (Middlesex Regiment) after the army reforms of 1881.

Richard was married to Lummey Minter(?) Kelly in 1857 in Middlesex, England, but we have been unable to find anything about her in the records, regarding where they lived and why Richard ended up in San Francisco at his time of death. If you know anything more about their story, please leave us a comment!

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The North curb exposed

We knew we had to reset this wonderful gravestone, but after ages of probing around the area, it was no where to be found. However, what we did uncover during the search was the buried curbing which once surrounded the entirety of the burial plot! Ornate on the north side facing a relic pathway, the large sandstone pillars and heavy curbs between them must have imposed an impressive sight on the landscape when they were new. This project had shifted from a simple resetting of a gravestone to a large undertaking…we had to reset the curbs too! Unfortunately for us, that meant a lot of digging because those curbs are deceptively deep underground.

Once we had the curbs loose from their pits, it took a lot of effort to raise them out of the ground and set them on the edges, ready to be reset again. While the north side of the curbing was very ornate and large, the rest of the sides were thinner and shorter, which made them much easier to move around! With all the curbs out of the ground, we cleaned up the ditches and Joey brought us several loads of limestone gravel to put below them. We raised them several inches, so that the tops of the stones are peaking out above the grass, similar to how they would have originally been set.

This is a labour-intensive process, and we were glad to have three people on site to help with it…those stones get pretty heavy, especially near the end of the day!

With all of the curbs back in place, we filled the sides almost level with the surrounding sod with the limestone gravel and stomped it down between shovel-fulls in order to compact the material and make sure the curbs don’t slump one way or the other while settling. Soon, topsoil and grass seed will be added to cover the gravel and repair the lawn! We are pretty excited to see the entire curb above ground again, especially when we all had no idea it was below the surface when we started this project.

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The reset curb (southeast corner is missing)

The next step was prepare the actual Hugessen gravestone for resetting. This involved getting a new key made for the marker. This process is carried out by the wonderful team in the garage, who have created a form which can be filled with cement to the correct dimensions for the gravestone in question. While the base is cement, it will not be attached to the gravestone with cement, but rather fitted in place with lime mortar, negating the potential damage from the other material.

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A mould to create cement gravestone keys.

After taking measurements to ensure we made the right sized base, the stone was cleaned several times in order to remove some of the dirt and discolouration caused by months of laying face up and exposed to the elements (and lawnmowers). It is almost scary how well D2 ends up working, especially when it is actually sunny outside! The sunlight allows the product to react and foam up, eating away the biological material on the surface of the stone. Even after it is rinsed off, it continues to help protect the stone from discolouration for ages afterwards. (if you’ve visited our Scottish stones, you’ll know that they have stayed gleaming white since they were brought to the surface and cleaned!).

 The next step was to get the new key (or base of the gravestone) outside and dig the hole to put it into. We decided, due to the immense size and weight of this gravestone to employ the use of Gridforce tiles underneath the ground. After digging a hole the size of two tiles, we filled it part way with packed limestone screening to create a solid and level foundation capable of good drainage. Over this limestone we placed the gridforce tiles, and filled it just to the top with additional screening. The tiles create a permeable but solid foundation, rather than having a heavy cement platform underground, which will not sink and allowed water to pass through while distributing the weight of the gravestone above. It’s amazing!

The site, ready to have the new foundation installed.

Once the limestone and grid were in place, we rolled the cement key into it’s new home! Now, we talk a lot about how cement isn’t good for gravestones, and that is still veeery much true, but this cement isn’t directly attached to the gravestone, but rather simply supporting it. The gravestone itself will be held in place with lime mortar!

Once the key was in place and level, a process which too longer than we all expected it to, it was time to mix up the mortar and call a few extra hands (i.e. Thomas and Meagan, our historians/archivists) to help us lift the monument into the new key. Placed on a board to keep it from being ground into the dirt and to spread the weight a little while lifting, four of us including Joey, carefully angled the gravestone up and placed it into the lime mortar while Thomas took photos of the historic event. The Hugessen monument has been waiting years and years to be standing again, so this was a historic occasion!

Once we had the monument standing and safely in the key, it was important to make sure that it dried as level as possible, so we took a few minutes (and shovels) to ensure it was braced on both sides to keep it level and safe while the mortar set. It might not be the prettiest option, but it keeps our gravestones from falling down in the middle of the night, so we’ll take it!

After the mortar has completely set (don’t want to push against it while it’s still damp) we will go back and clean the back of the gravestone…which has not seen the light of day in quite some time, and fill in all the dirt sections around the gravestone and the curbing with ‘black’, otherwise known as topsoil, with grass seed to revitalize the area which has been chopped up substantially by our shovels and covered by piles of soil for the last 4 weeks. But at this point we are excited to say that the monument has been restored, and is standing! You can visit Hugessen and potentially his mother, Fanny Catherine, in Section R behind the crematory, on the crest of the hill.

Thank you for reading!

The Hugessen monument, reset with curbing. June 2019

Thank you for following our progress so far this summer! Keep an eye out for more information on our walking tour, which will be held on July 6th, 2019

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